Siberian larch (lat. Larix sibírica) is a species of coniferous trees in the genus Larch (Larix) of the Pine family (Pinaceae).
Siberian larch grows within the forest zone, East and North-East of the European part of Russia, the Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia (up to lake Baikal). From North to South, the range extends from the tundra (71° s. s.) to the Altai and Sayan (46° s. s.). In the mountains it rises to the upper border of the forest, in the Altai to 2200-2400 m above sea level. It is predominant in the forests of the Northern Urals, in Western Siberia (North of 63° s. W.), in the Altai and in the Sayans; in other places by Islands and in admixture with other breeds.
It grows in coniferous forests (along with common pine and Siberian cedar), less often forms pure larch forests. He acts as a pioneer in logging areas and fires. Prefers podzolic or sod-podzolic soils
The tree is up to 30-40 meters high and the trunk diameter is 80-100 (up to 180) cm. the Crown of young trees is pyramidal, later it becomes oval-rounded. The bark on old trunks is thick, with longitudinal cracks, deeply furrowed; on young ones-smooth, light straw color.
The apical buds are broadly conical; the lateral ones are hemispherical, yellowish-brown. Needles are soft, narrowly linear, 13-45 mm long, up to 1.6 mm wide, with a blunt tip, light green, with a bluish bloom, collected by 30-40 pieces in a bundle. In autumn, as with other larch species, they fall off. Male spikelets (microstrobils) are single, spherical or oval, pale yellow, 5-6 mm in diameter, located at the ends of shortened shoots; female spikelets are broadly conical, 10-15 mm long, purple or pink, less often pale green or whitish. Pollination occurs in may. Cones ovate or oblong-oval, first purple, then light brown or light yellow, 2-4 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, consisting of 22-38 scales arranged in 5-7 rows. Seed scales 13-20 mm long, 10-15 mm wide, with an even edge, rounded or ovoid, with a thick velvety pubescence of red hairs on the outside. The covering scales are leathery, hidden between the seeds. The cones hang on the tree after the seeds fall out, for another 2-3 years, then fall off, but do not crumble.
Seeds obliquely-back-ovate, small, 2-5 mm long, 3-4 mm wide, yellowish, with dark stripes and specks; wing 8-17 mm long, 4-6 mm wide, almost straight on one side, hollow-rounded on the other. In 1 kg of 94-147 thousand seeds, the weight of 1000 seeds — 9.5 (5.3-14.1) g. Seed years in 2-3 years; in the Northern regions less often.
Wood with a reddish-brown core and a narrow, white sapwood. Annual rings are clearly visible on all sections. Pitch passages are rare, small and difficult to distinguish. It has high mechanical properties, is not subject to rot, but is heavy, difficult to process and prone to cracking. It is used as a construction material, for hydraulic structures, transfer and bridge beams, mine racks, and sometimes as fuel.
Due to the fact that Siberian larch tolerates city conditions well, it is often used for gardening, in single and group plantings.